Preparedness Affecting the Responsibility to Respond
 

 

Isabell Moo

The Indostan elephant analogy educates the importance of different perspectives. In the international community, there are different theoretical perspectives such as realism, liberalism, constructivism, feminism, and others. These ideologies influence states governance while respecting the sovereignty of other nation-states with differing views. There is no global governance, however member states are able to work multilaterally with one another with the influence of non-state actors and third parties such as the International Monetary Fund, the African Union, the World Bank, United Nations, American Red Cross, and others. However, as a result of different perspectives, this leads to international conflict. Foreign influence impacts international conflict as a result of sovereign nation-states working towards their own national interest before others. Yet the main cause of international conflict is the ability to responsibly respond to a crisis because if there is no effective response, large scale atrocities of human rights violations will be committed.
    The use of theory matters. It is the root cause of decision making such as the ability to respond to a crisis and how to effectively prevent them. Theory explains, describes, and predicts various aspects of the international community based on the nature and roles of state, sovereignty, and interactions amongst state and nonstate actors. “Global governance is not the global government”, but has been used as a synonym for international organizations (Mingst, Karns, & Stiles 2015, Pg 2). There are different theoretical approaches viewed and executed by the international community. The realist approach views states as the key actor and not non-state actors. Morgenthau illustrates international organizations are tools to empower or depower the power of states but do not influence the international system. Liberalism views both state and nonstate actors are vital in maintaining peace and stability in the international community of which it is important to promote dependency by establishing peace and trust with other member states. It supports that human nature is good and malleable through institutions such as the United Nations, European Union, African Union, and other Intergovernmental Organisations. The Kantian Liberal Peace identifies democratic peace addressing democracies do not fight other democracies. The journal further clarifies Kant to “expect liberal states not only to experience international peace but domestic peace as well” (Danilovic 2007, Pg 402). It is agreed in constructivism that the behavior of individuals, states, and other actors is influenced by shared cultural practices, socially constructed rules, and beliefs. Wendt makes the claim that “fundamental structures of international politics are social rather than strictly material, and that these structures shape actors’ identities and interests, rather than just their behavior” (Wendt 1995, pg. 71-72). For instance, The United States allows society the liberty to assemble. With this freedom, man is able to vocalize and advocate what is needed to change of which the government is often malleable. Furthermore, these different perspectives influence how the international community governs their own sovereign states impacting their effectiveness to respond to a crisis that is created by the host state or another as a result of their own national interest and what is just.
    Saw Ba U Gyi, founder of the Karen National Union and modern Karen armed revolution delivers three vital key points to surpass the struggles the Karen endure towards freedom and autonomy. He conveys armed struggle; political dialogue and a negotiated settlement with the Burmese governments and; international prevention can deliver them from their struggles towards their own freedom and progression towards modernity. However, raising arms can involuntarily harm noncombatants, negotiations with the force of a third party can lead to more struggle, and international intervention depending on how direct and indirect the initiation is can cause more civil war or benefit the human development of the nation state. For instance, countries that were colonised with direct governance and intervention from the French have more conflict than countries that were colonised by the british under indirect governance and intervention. Furthermore, in regards to the conflict the Karen are facing, it is vital for the international community to be able to intervene effectively, efficiently, and responsibly. So too, the issue that occurred in the Democratic Congo is a prime example of the effectiveness to responsibly respond to a crisis from the international community.
    According to The Responsibility to Protect. Foreign Affairs, there is a set of responsibilities that the international community should abide by. It addresses the responsibility for the international community to have the ability to protect its own individuals, the responsibility for the international community to assist other sovereign states that need assistance in protecting their own individuals, and the responsibility for the international community to engage when prevention has failed. Quite so often, the international community tends to fail to respect these responsibilities, leading to more atrocities violating human rights and furthering to justifying war. Machiavelli’s analysis of The Prince emphasizes the importance of being and ready and preparedness. He argues virtu can defeat fortuna, illustrating the importance of using logic and reasoning in governance instead of luck. International conflict predominately arises from the lack of readiness and preparedness, therefore influences the international community’s effectiveness to respond to a crisis. For instance, the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo impacted the livelihood of numerous individuals as a result of failure to respond to the crisis effectively. Many violations against humanity were committed as a result of a common self-interest; money. Warlords such as Thomas Lubanga incentivized arms trade with the manifestation of child soldier recruits. These warlords committed numerous crimes for the betterment of their own self-interest. To this accord, The Democratic of the Congo failed to prevent and protect their individuals from atrocities committed by groups within society (Evans 2002, pg 101). As a result, this led to more atrocities such as the murder of two United Nations Military Observers (MILOBS), massacres in the villages such as Jojo, conflict and violence in both Ituri and Bunia, and the construction of child soldiers, rape, human trafficking, an increase of arms trade, and more. 
 Statements delivered by Madam Buweka created the assumptions other individual states were aiding the Warlords. She delivers, “Rwanda and Uganda don’t have any gold, but in the past few years they’ve become the main producers of gold…while we’re fighting, they’re behind it” (Cowan 2005). In relation to the McDonalds peace theory, a common mutual interest of incentivisation persuades dependency. Exposed by Madam Buweka in the documentary The Peacekeepers, the allegations against Rwanda and Uganda becoming the main producers of gold is related to the warlords extracting gold from gold mines and using it towards their arms trade. In correlation to the McDonalds peace theory, the incentivisation of gold allowed Rwanda and Uganda to flourish from the production of the gold mines and did not directly cause conflict, however, this negatively impacted Bunia, Ituri, and the Democratic Republic of Congo indirectly having a causal effect of numerous atrocities such as manslaughter of noncombatants and civil war committed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. An interesting phenomenon is the role of imperialism taking in effect between Uganda, Rwanda, and the warlord’s influence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Imperialism and capitalism impact the international community. The concept of incentivization is a national interest to many sovereign States, therefore, highly structured intergovernmental institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank impacting influencing economics on both a micro and macro scale are vital. While capitalism is the free exchange of goods and services protected by rules of law and property rights, imperialism is influenced by power and thrives on force and exploitation of involuntary services (Davies. S 2013) This benefits the privileged such as Uganda and Rwanda to monopolize the production of gold and allows exploitation of high levels of corruption to be committed indirectly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo at the hands of the warlords. These warlords give countries such as Rwanda and Uganda access to gold mines in exchange for arms trade leading to more serious and heinous crimes against humanity to be committed. 
Ugandan Peacekeepers initially were deployed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo until the United Nations Security Council declared for all missions, troops, and operations to be halted and extracted from the African Nation-State viewing the situation to be far too dangerous. So too, understanding the dire need of the presence of Ugandan peacekeepers, already familiar with the situation, the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) ought for their personnel to stay, not formally requesting due to political conflict. The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) stated the situation was not dire enough, wanting to shift their focus towards Iraq and the Middle East. The United States conveyed it was not their problem, but was France’s problem implicating the origins of the African Nations State’s colonisation. It was also deeply expressed “what is the worth of one failed African Nation?” In the call to seek for aid and assistance from the Member States to volunteer Peacekeeping personnel, out of 193 member states of the United Nations, only one country accepted the call, Uruguay. 750 Uruguayan peacekeepers were to replace the 5000 “battle-hardened” Ugandans (Cowan 2005). Initially, the situation was not dire enough according to the UNSC to invest nor was it of national interest. Attention was focused on issues arising in the middle east. Although there was a responsibility to respond in the Middle East, there was a lack of response towards Central Africa because it was not attractive. The international community failed the responsibility to respond when the Democratic Republic of the Congo needed assistance as a result of political will and individual State’s own sovereign national interest and were not prepared to prevent the oncoming mass slaughter.
So too, media and journalists were able to raise awareness, exposing the seriousness of atrocities committed in Ituri, Bunia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo holistically diverting the attention of the international community as a result of the change of public opinion. Two United Nations Military Observers (MILOBS) were deployed to observe the drastic scale of which was occurring in the African Nation States. There was the worry of the militia’s in the hills preparing to attack the camps, increased rape, refugees are fleeing from the capital and continual large scale recruitments of child soldiers and human trafficking. Continual large scale atrocities were committed and Uruguay eventually is powerless to intervene. Eventually, the French Parliament, initially reluctant to intervene, stated their concerns would solely be concentrated in Bunia and not in Ituri for only three months and then it would be up to The United Nations Security Council to create a plan. There was an emphasis on using force and pressure to deter the warlords of which the French delivered. Although there was finally an initiative to formulate a plan to respond, the delayed response created more of a negative impact. In the clip Military Intervention in Syria Carr expresses waiting for United Nations authorization can be detrimental. In wait for United Nations authorization for military intervention, the death rate in Syria is 250 killed per day. Similar to this situation, the delayed response to engage when Uruguay’s prevention had failed, it resulted in more deaths, such as the two MILOBS who were sent without support, back up, or aid. There was a call to retrieve the MILOBS, exposing their level of distress, however, when a helicopter was dispatched late, it returned empty discovering soon after the missing bodies of the UN Observers were identified a week later on 2003, May 14. At the site of their death, it was exposed there were goldmines under the production of the warlords, assuming the MILOB’s witnessed an event or scenario they were not supposed to witness. Furthermore, along with the death of the MILOBS, there is an increase of refugees fleeing into the forest, into the camps, the warlords preparing a militia in the mountains, increase production in the arms trade deal, and more mass casualty. Therefore, the international community as a result of a lack of preparedness to engage when all preventions failed, failed to effectively and responsibility to engage and respond causing more violations.
    The push for peace and stability in the Democratic Republic of the Congo was actively pushed by Margaret Carey, Principal Officer of the Africa Division of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations along with others. Women are essential in preventing conflict and sustaining peace because gender permeates all international structure (United Nations 2018). The impact of women on foreign policy suggests that “increased gender equality, resulting in women's equal political, economic, and social power, will result in more pacific foreign policy behavior” (Caprioli 2000 pg. 51). The solution addressing violence and discrimination against women is to “elevate women from their historically subordinate status to men” (Karns, Mingst, and Stiles 2015 pg. 518). Margaret Carey drafted the Ituri Exit Strategy having several thousand additional UN troops to secure Bunia after te French leaves which would cost 150 million dollars, predominately being paid for by the United States. This later creates The United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO). Prior, the French-led multinational force was able to declare Bunia’s weapon free in late June. Replacing the French force with MONUSCO, they were able to succeed with force destabilising warlords of machetes and extending the perimeters into the hills once owned by warlords with attack helicopters from India. Initially, MONUSCO Ituri brigade consisted of Pakistani, Bangladeshi, and Indian UN personnel out of 193 countries to stabilise Bunia. However, with the mandate of Chapter 7, the UN personnel are authorized to shoot and kill which prior personally did not have the authority to do so. The authority to use force and pressure against the warlords was successful. Madam Buweka emphasized the use of force and pressure to destabilize and disarmament of warlords such as Thomas Lubanga and treating him to a national level. 
Lawrence explains modernity in a sense of perspective. Perspective creates different ideologies which then influence infrastructure, morality, governance, and society holistically. Lawrence analyzes that progress in society and advancement in technology is a result of war, fabricating war to be normal and no longer barbaric, so too implementing the normative justification and authorization for the conduct of warfare; jus ad bellum (Mosely). The legitimacy of revolutionizing organized violence to instill fear, force, and deterrence is because national interest is the utmost important priority in regards to maintaining security and stability. It is recognized that violence and war are brute, however according to Lawrence and other theorists there is justifiable cause for war according to the national interest, the use of violence is just. Many Presidents in the past justify war as a measure to secure democracy or more violence such as war is needed to stop present violence. It is interesting to observe to tackle the issue ongoing in the Democratic Republic of the Congo against the violence and mass atrocities of killings and rape committed by the warlords was to create a forceful brigade that was authorized to shoot and kill under the mandate of chapter 7 since the political will was of national interest amongst the international community. Furthermore, in relation to the international community’s responsibility to respond, the lack of readiness was detrimental towards maintaining stability and security in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Democratic Republic of the Congo failed to protect their own individuals, due to personal national interest amongst the international community, and failure to timely engage when all preventions failed led to more casualties to be committed. The international community was not prepared and this affected the country of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In the mixed year for the world of Peacekeepers, the United Nations Security Council failed to stop the war in Iraq, however, the responsibility to intervene in Haiti, Burundi, and Liberia amongst others are qualified as successes. Madam Buweka’s fight against warlord Thomas Lubanga committed to his arrest in spring 2005 with the International Criminal Court (ICC) to announce a thorough investigation on all Ituri warlords for their crimes against humanity, and with MONUSCO budget increases one billion USD a year. Since the beginning of the UN mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO), 52 peacekeepers have died and the Congolese parliament takes the initiative to open parliament in Kinshasa leading towards national elections.
    Consequently, the main cause of international conflict is the readiness to responsibly respond to a crisis because if there is no effective response, large scale atrocities of human rights violations will be committed. Therefore international intervention in regards to the Karen conflict can be vital if there is an effective response. There is no global governance, however member states are able to work multilaterally with one another with the influence of non-state actors and third parties such as the International Monetary Fund, the African Union, the World Bank, United Nations, American Red Cross, and others. As a result of different perspectives, this leads to international conflict in regards to national interest.

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